• Ananthakumar Ayyadurai Vivekanandha College of Technology for Women, Tiruchengode 637205, Tamilnadu, India
  • M. M. Saravanan Vivekanandha College of Technology for Women, Tiruchengode 637205, Tamilnadu, India
  • M. Devi Vivekanandha College of Technology for Women, Tiruchengode 637205, Tamilnadu, India
Keywords: Eichhornia Crassipes, wetland, biological treatment, charcoal, heavy metal, silicafume, compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength


This research focuses on enhancing water quality for concrete construction by utilizing treated wastewater from wetlands. The study employs a dual-stage treatment process involving charcoal and aggregate layers for primary treatment, followed by water hyacinths for secondary treatment. Investigating water hyacinths’ ability to absorb nutrients and contaminants from wastewater is a unique aspect of the study, offering a potential solution for soil and water remediation. Water hyacinths, especially stems and leaves, act as natural filters, effectively indicating heavy-metal pollution in tropical regions. The primary goal is heavy-metal removal from wastewater, allowing treated-water use in concrete production at varying proportions (20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 %, and 100 %). Silica fume at 15 % concentration is incorporated to enhance the concrete’s durability. Concrete specimens undergo thorough preparation and mechanical property evaluations, compared to conventional M20-grade concrete. The results reveal improvements in mechanical properties, particularly with 80 % treated wastewater in the mix. The dual-stage treatment process removes heavy metals, and the inclusion of silica fume enhances the concrete’s durability and resistance.


1 X. Chen, J. Wu, Y. Ning, W. Zhang, Experimental study on the effect of wastewater and waste slurry of mixing plant on mechanical properties and microstructure of concrete, Journal of Building Engineering, 2022 Jul 15, 52:104307

2 Q. He, H. Fei, J. Zhou, X. Liang, Y. Pan, Utilization of carbonized water hyacinth for effective encapsulation and thermal conductivity enhancement of phase change energy storage materials, Construction and Building Materials, 2023; 372:130841

3 Niyasom, Samit, and Nuchnapa Tangboriboon. Development of biomaterial fillers using eggshells, water hyacinth fibers, and banana fibers for green concrete construction, Construction and Building Materials, 2021; 283:122627

4 J. A. Di Canto, W. J. Malfait, J. Wernery, Turning waste into insulation–A new sustainable thermal insulation board based on wheat bran and banana peels, Building and Environment, 2023 Oct 1;244:110740

5 S. M. Hosseinian, A. G. Sabouri, D. G. Carmichael, Sustainable production of buildings based on Iranian vernacular patterns: A water footprint analysis, Building and Environment, 2023 Aug 15;242:110605

6 Z. Ma, R. Hu, P. Yao, C. Wang, Utilizing heat-mechanical synergistic treatment for separating concrete waste into high-quality recycled aggregate, active recycled powder and new concrete, Journal of Building Engineering, 2023 Jun 1;68:106161

7 M. Zhang, L. Zhu, S. Gao, Y. Dong, H. Yuan, Mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete prepared from waste concrete treated at high temperature, Journal of Building Engineering, 2023 Jun 23:107045

8 M, Alyami, I. Y. Hakeem, M. Amin, A. M. Zeyad, B. A. Tayeh, I. S. Agwa, Effect of agricultural olive, rice husk and sugarcane leaf waste ashes on sustainable ultra-high-performance concrete, Journal of Building Engineering, 2023 Aug 1;72:106689

9 J. M. Boban, P. V. Nair, S. T. Shiji, S. E. Cherian, Incorporation of water hyacinth in concrete, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 2017 May;6(05)

10 I. Adewumi, A. S. Ogbiy, Using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to treat wastewater of a residential institution. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2009 Jul 1;91(5):891-903

11 N. M. Al-Joulani, Effect of wastewater type on concrete properties. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015;10(19):39865-70

12 I. Al-Ghusain, M. Terro, Use of treated wastewater for concrete mixing in Kuwait. Kuwait journal of science and Engineering. 2003 Jun 1;30(1):213-28

13 H. M. Saleh, Stability of cemented dried water hyacinth used for biosorption of radionuclides under various circumstances. Journal of Nuclear Materials. 2014 Mar 1;446(1-3):124-33

14 H. Minakawa, U. Tamon, T. Jirawattanasomkul, Compressive Behavior of Low Strength Concrete Confined with Water Hyacinth and Jute NFRP. InНовые идеи нового века: материалы международной научной конференции ФАД ТОГУ 2020 (Vol. 3, pp. 428-433). Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования Тихоокеанский государ¬ственный университет

15 I. Harun, H. Pushiri, A. J. Amirul-Aiman, Z. Zulkeflee, Invasive water hyacinth: ecology, impacts and prospects for the rural economy. Plants. 2021 Aug 6;10(8):1613

16 M. L. Garcia, S. Rodriguez, Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Water Hyacinth: A Sustainable Approach for Industrial Wastewater Treatment, Chemosphere, 2019; 60(2):234-241

17 Z. Ismail, S. Z. Othman, K. H. Law, A. H. Sulaiman, R. Hashim, Comparative performance of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Water Lettuce (Pista stratiotes) in preventing nutrients build-up in municipal wastewater. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water. 2015; 43(4):521-531

18 P. Saha, O. Shinde, S. Sarkar, Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth, International journal of phytoremediation, 2017; 19(1):87-96

19 S. Rezania, M. Ponraj, A. Talaiekhozani, S. E. Mohamad, M. F. M. Din, S. M. Taib, F. M. Sairan, Perspectives of phytoremediation using water hyacinth for removal of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater, Journal of environmental management, 2015; 163:125-133

20 K. K.Victor, Y. Séka, K. K. Norbert, T. A. Sanogo, A. B. Celestin, Phytoremediation of wastewater toxicity using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistiastratiotes), International Journal of phytoremediation, 2016; 18(10):949-955

21 P. Gupta, S.Roy, A. B. Mahindrakar, Treatment of Water Using Water Hyacinth, Water Lettuce and Vetiver Grass - A Review, Int. J. Environmental Engineering, 2015; 2(5):202-215

22 A Khare, E. P. Lal, Waste Water Purification Potential of Eichhornia crassipes (Water Hyacinth). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2017; 6(12):3723-3731

23 A. Valipour, V. K. Raman, Y. H. Ahn, Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment using a bio-hedge water hyacinth wetland system, Water, 2015; 7(1):329-347

24 Y. Nuraini, M. Felani, Phytoremediation of tapioca wastewater using water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes). Journal of degraded and mining lands management. 2015; 2(2):295

25 N. Singh, C. Balomajumder, Phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for phenol and cyanide elimination from synthetic/simulated wastewater. Applied Water Science. 2021; 11(8):1-15

26 W. H. T. Ting, I. A. W. Tan, S. F. Salleh, N. A. Wahab, Application of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for phytoremediation of ammoniacal nitrogen: A review. Journal of water process engineering. 2018; 22:239-249

27 C. Anudechakul, A. S. Vangnai, N. Ariyakanon, Removal of chlorpyrifos by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and the role of a plant-associated bacterium. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2015; 17(7):678-685

28 V. Kumar, J. Singh, P. Kumar, Regression models for removal of heavy metals by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from wastewater of pulp and paper processing industry. Environmental Sustainability. 2020; 3(1):35-44

29 E. S. Priya, P. S. Selvan, Water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) – An efficient and economic adsorbent for textile effluent treatment – A review. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2017; 10(2):S3548-S3558

30 A. P. Ramkar, U. S. Ansari, Effect of Treated Waste Water on Strength of Concrete. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 2016; 13(6):41-45

31 A. A. Adelodun, U. O. Hassan, V. O. Nwachuckwu, Environmental, mechanical, and biochemical benefits of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020; 27(24):30210-30221

32 S. Mishra, A. Maiti, The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater: a review. Environmental science and pollution research. 2017; 24(9):7921-7937

33 B. Panneerselvam, K. S. Priya, Phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth in heavy metal removal in chromium and lead contaminated water. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry,. 2021; 1-16

34 U. F. Carreño-Sayago, Development of microspheres using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for treatment of contaminated water with Cr (VI). Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2021; 23(3):4735-4746

35 T. Jirawattanasomkul, H. Minakawa, S. Likitlersuang, T. Ueda, J. G. Dai, N. Wuttiwannasak, Kongwang, Use of water hyacinth waste to produce fibre-reinforced polymer composites for N. concrete confinement: Mechanical performance and environmental assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2021 Apr 10;292:126041

36 L. MzukisiMadikizela, Removal of organic pollutants in water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Journal of Environmental Management. 2021; 295:113153

37 F. Amalina, A. S. Abd Razak, S. Krishnan, A. W. Zularisam, M. Nasrullah, Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for organic contaminants removal in water–A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances. 2022; 1(7):100092

38 L. M. Madikizela Removal of organic pollutants in water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Journal of Environmental Management. 2021 Oct 1;295:113153

39 S. Ahmed, Y. Alhoubi, N. Elmesalami, S. Yehia, F. Abed Effect of recycled aggregates and treated wastewater on concrete subjected to different exposure conditions. Construction and Building Materials. 2021 Jan 10;266:120930

40 H. Varshney, R. A. Khan, I. K. Khan, Sustainable use of different wastewater in concrete construction: A review. Journal of Building Engineering. 2021 Sep 1;41:102411

41 M. F. Arooj, F. Haseeb, A. I. Butt, M. Irfan-Ul-Hassan, H. Batool, S. Kibria, Z. Javed, H Nawaz, S. Asif A sustainable approach to reuse of treated domestic wastewater in construction incorporating admixtures. Journal of Building Engineering. 2021 Jan 1;33:101616

42 A. M. PN, G. Madhu, Removal of heavy metals from waste water using water hyacinth. International journal on transportation and Urban Development. 2011 Apr 1;1(1):48.

43 K. Meena, S. Luhar, Effect of wastewater on properties of concrete. Journal of Building Engineering. 2019 Jan 1;21:106-12.

44 A. T. Huynh, Y. C. Chen, B. N. Tran, A small-scale study on removal of heavy metals from contaminated water using water hyacinth. Processes. 2021 Oct 11;9(10):1802

45 S. Rezania, M. Ponraj, A. Talaiekhozani, S. E. Mohamad, M. F. Din, S. M. Taib, F. Sabbagh, F. M. Sairan Perspectives of phytoremediation using water hyacinth for removal of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater. Journal of environmental management. 2015 Nov 1;163:125-33

46 K. S. Al-Jabri, A. H. Al-Saidy, R. Taha, A. J. Al-Kemyani, Effect of using wastewater on the properties of high strength concrete. Procedia Engineering. 2011 Jan 1;14:370-6

How to Cite
Ayyadurai A, Saravanan MM, Devi M. EFFICIENT WASTEWATER TREATMENT THROUGH INTEGRATED WATER HYACINTH SYSTEMS: ADVANCES AND APPLICATIONS IN CONCRETE. MatTech [Internet]. 2024Apr.3 [cited 2024May18];58(2):173–184. Available from: https://mater-tehnol.si/index.php/MatTech/article/view/914